The cuneiform Hittite texts of the XV-XIV centuries BC contain important information dealing with at least two different population movements happened along the Upper Euphrates region. First of these is fixed in the treaty signed between the Hittite king Tudḫaliyaš II (second part of the XV century BC) and Šunaššura, king of Kizzuwatna. The second migration took place later, during the reign of Tudḫaliyaš III. This second migration is of interest since in that population movement was involved a great number of people from different parts of Asia Minor. The study of several Hittite prayers compiled during the reign of Arnuwandaš I allow to assume that this second migration is definitely connected with continuous famine, hunger, plague and attacks of neighboring countries which could force the population of several regions to migrate first to Išuwa and from there to Ḫayaša.
Keywords: Flight of population, famine, plague, Išuwa, Ḫayaša, Ḫatti
The chronology of events during the reign of Tukultī-Ninurta I does not stand out with particular accuracy, which often sparked controversy. In particular, it refers to the irregular sequence of events in the king's records. In this article, examining the records of the Assyrian king, we have singled out the raids of his first three years, 1242-1239 BC․
Keywords: Assyria, Aššur, invasion, eponym, Uqumenu, Qutu, Šarnida, Meḫru, Katmuḫu, Alzu, Nairi
In the 40s of the last century, J. Wolski proposed a thesis, still dominant in historiography, arguing that the story of Arrian which reached us thanks to his work “Parthica” that the Arsacid dynasty, the founder of Parthian state, descended from the Achaemenids, has a fictional origin. According to J. Wolski, J. Neusner and their followers, it is an “ideological fiction”, a “literary forgery”, which appeared in the period between the second half of II century BC and the beginning of the I century AD and was recorded in written form by Arrian. However, the conclusion, based on the limited and often one-sided data by Strabo and Justin, is defective and does not meet the current requirements of the study of the problem. Оnly a comprehensive examination of the evidence provided by written sources in the field of the Parthian numismatics, epigraphy, archaeology, onomastics and other branches of science can give a complete answer to the issue. In this case, it becomes obvious that the “Arrianian” legend about the genealogical connection between the Arsacids and the Achaemenids is not just a literary fiction, but has a real historical basis.
Keywords: Arrian, the Arsacids, the Achaemenids, the Dahae, Central Asia, Parthia, Artaxerxes, Arsaces I, Mithridates I