The given contribution is devoted to the problem of computer modeling in archaeology. The territory of the Republic of Armenia is chosen as a target zone for investigations, which is considered in the context of historical and cultural developments of the neighboring countries. The chronological range of the given study is the Bronze and Iron Ages (3rd-1st millennia BC). Тhe principles of computer modeling are applicable to the investigation of monumental architecture (fortifications, towers, cairns, kites, kurgans, dolmens), aiming at reconstructing both the complexes of the monuments and the historical landscape.
Keywords: Archaeology, Computer, GIS system, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Armenia, “Cyclopean” constructions, Artsakh, Syunik
The Ancient Near Eastern powerful states in the mid II millennium BC were not only directing and supervising the military-political, trading-economic, and sociocultural processes, but were also trying to obtain their dominance and control in the region. This was the reason that two conflicting groups gradually polarized in the region, where each state, despite its interests concerning the redistribution of spheres of influence in the ancient Near East, had to ally a more convenient political formation, given the current political situation and its capacities. As a result, the Hittite New Kingdom, Arzawa and Wilusa appeared to be in one of the groups, and the New Kingdom of Egypt, Kassite Babylonia and Mitanni were in the other one. The inter-state relations of these powers included both military-political and diplomatic rivalry, and a controlled system of well-organized transit trading and cultural relations. At the same time, each of the groups sought to urge other small early state organizations and tribal unions of the region to get involved in the alliance, contributing to the realization of prospective political plans with their capacities of raw materials, production of specific items and human resources. This was the situation also with the part of the early state organization of the Armenian Highland. Meanwhile, both the written sources and the archaeological excavations in general, testify the anti-Hittite orientation of the early state organizations of the Armenian Highland and their tending towards Egypt-Mitanni-Kassite Babylonia alliance.
Keywords: Armenian Highland, New Kingdom of Egypt, Mitanni, Kassite Babylonia, Early state organizations, Nairi, Etiuni, archaeology.
In two articles representing his journey by the Upper Euphrates E. Huntington, well-known US geographer, describes the river transportation on sheepskin rafts which was practiced by the local population, mostly Armenians. The description of kellek (sheepskin raft) by E. Huntington leaves no doubt that they are similar with the raft which was used by the people of Mesopotamia according to Herodotus.
Keywords: E. Huntington, sheepskin raft, Euphrates, river traffic, Herodotus.
Le capitaine Parthe Suréna, victorieux des légions de Crassus fut exécuté par Orodès aussitôt après sa victoire éclatante. L'examen de ce fait portent à révéler les particularité du développement politique de l'Empire Parthe.
Keywords: Suréna, Orodès, Arsacides, Parthes, Plutarque, Tiridate, Mithridate III, Rome, relations de pouvoir, G. Kochelenko.
The role of the high aristocracy, the so-called pahlavs, is undeniable in the history of the Parthian state. In the second half of III century BC the assistance of the pahlavs to the Arsacid dynasty considerably contributed to the establishment of the Dahae and organization of their own state in Parthia and Hyrcania. During the following centuries the rises and crises of the political life of the Parthian statehood and even its final decline in the first quarter of the III century was due to the attitude of the Parthian pahlavs towards the Arsacid dynasty. In spite of the key role of the pahlavs, the issues of their ethnic origin, social nature, their number and the relations with the royal power are still poorly studying in historical science. We hope that this article will bring its contribution in studying the history of the Parthian pahlavs.
Keywords: Arsacids, Parthia, Hyrcania, Dahae, Parni, Xanthii, Pissuri, Pahlav, Suren, Karen, synedrion, Strabo
The article is about the generations of war and expounds on Hybrid wars. Its connection to the model of generational divisions is detailed. Today, as well, with the Cold War is over, the hyperactivity of the US in the military-political arena has brought forth a similar storm. The American war machine is in a victory march. At the same time a variety of ideas and theories of war are brought forth and being discussed. There are differing views on how generations of war should be classified. In my opinion, the main spheres of human development, such as that of commerce, economics, politics, science, education and culture, are the main determining factors. Taking into consideration the various factors, wars have been divided into the following six generations. Fifth generation warfare's necessity became apparent during fourth generation wars. The main elements in question were automated control systems and precision-guided armament. Along with new political, economic and social developments, these ensured new victories. Again, in this generation, armies chose to avoid operations that required large scale mobilization, and instead tried promptly sending small groups into battle, avoiding large-scale preparatio. The issues in the fields of war, as well as the issue of waves of communication, reached their peak. This generation, once and for all, confirmed the importance of force accumulation on any platform, anywhere in the world. Fifth generation wars brought armies to a point where they retired from classical combined arms warfare; Electro-Fire Battle is more commonly applied. Trenches and engineered structures are nearly extinct. This was yet another example of believing in the superiority of quality over quantity. The effects of information became a decisive factor. These were the wars of the digital media industry.
Keywords: Generation, warfare, electro-fire Battle, digital media industry, precision-guided armament, air force, attack, defence, USA, control systems
The article discusses the major tendencies of the development of Armenian-Syrian relations during the last 30 years based on the primary sources, including the archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, other official documents, and statistical data. The research is an attempt to explain what determines the relations between the two countries and the dynamics of these relations. It represents political, economic and social factors determining the relationship between Armenia and Syria.
Keywords: Armenia, Syria, bilateral relations, interests, Armenian community, politics, economy, trade, Turkey, the Syrian war.
The article deals with Israel’s factor which influences Iran-Azerbaijan relations. The article highlights the following issues when assessing the impact of the Israeli factor on Iran-Azerbaijan relations: • Represent Israel’s foreign policy priorities on Azerbaijan, • Assess the position of the Islamic Republic of Iran on Azerbaijan-Israel cooperation and analyze Iran's policy within this context, • Analyze Azerbaijan's motives for strengthening cooperation with Israel. The nuclear program, Iran's missile systems, the Shia factor, the Iranian-speaking peoples of Azerbaijan (Tats, Talish), the activities of Azerbaijani Shia opposition figures, the 760-kilometer border between Azerbaijan and Iran – these are the main factors underlying Israel's policy towards Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan first of all justified the establishment of relations with Israel with the expectation of receiving military-political assistance from Israel in the settlement of the Nagorno Karabakh conflict. During the presidency of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (2005-2013), when one of the scenarios for suspending Iran's nuclear program was considered a military attack, the territory of Azerbaijan was considered a platform for attacking Iran. While Baku has made every effort to exclude the Iranian factor in Azerbaijan-Israel military cooperation, the Iranian military-political management has always been skeptical of Baku's assurances, claiming that Israeli drones could easily be used for reconnaissance against Iran. • During Hassan Rouhani's presidency, as compared with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's presidency, positive developments took place in the relations between Azerbaijan and Iran, and bilateral economic cooperation strengthened. In order to weaken Israel's influence in Azerbaijan, Iran replaced its policy of harsh response to Azerbaijan with economic cooperation. Iran was more concerned about the growing influence of Israel in various spheres in Azerbaijan than the use of a possible Israeli threat against Iran from the territory of Azerbaijan, which has always been raised in the past. • Azerbaijan tried to bring counterargument against Israel-Azerbaijan relations with Armenia-Iran relations. • In order to weaken Iran's religious influence, Azerbaijan, on the one hand, repressed the country's Shiite opposition figures, and on the other hand, Baku managed to obtain military-political support from Israel by exploiting the Iranian-Shiite
There are a great number of Armenian compound personal names with the element šah ‘king’ of Iranian origin (Middle Persian and New Persian šāh ‘king’). It occurs: (1) in both masculine and feminine names; (2) with both native Armenian and foreign components; (3) either as the first or the second component; (4) often in doublet forms with a reversed order of the components. For instance: masculine Šah-amir and Amir-šah, Šah-paron and Paron-šah, Vahram-šah; feminine: Šah-xat‘un and Xat‘un-šah, Šah-tikin. Also note masc. Šah-aziz vs. fem. Aziz-šah, masc․ Sult‘an-šah vs. fem. Šah-sult‘an, masc. Melik‘-šah vs. fem. Šah-melē/ik‘ (the latter is sometimes masculine, cf. Middle Persian > Syriac Šāh-malīk, also masculine ). This paper aims to interpret two hapax legomena in which the component šah became synchronically unanalyzable due to phonological changes. In one of them, šah is the second member of the name (gen. Artamšin < *Artam-šah/y-in), whereas in the other it is the first one (Šaštʻi < *Šah-stʻi ‘Šah-Lady’).
Keywords: Middle Persian, New Persian, Armenian, Šah-amir, Vahram-šah, Sult‘an-šah, Šah-paron, Melik‘-šah.
The Caucasian Persian (Tat), being the only Southwest Iranian language, which is descended from Early New Persian and is spoken in the eastern part of Transcaucasus, is of great interest in the context of the study of the problems related to areal and historical-comparative linguistics, as well as in concern of the revision of issues related to historical contacts and interactions between Iranian languages and peoples in Transcaucasus.
Keywords: Caucasian Persian, Iranian stratum, Middle Persian archaisms, Northwest Iranian borrowings, Northwest Iranian substratum, Northern Talysh, Southwest Iranian loans, Caucasian Persian inherited lexicon.